INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM What is Integumentary System?-Helps maintain a constant body temperature, protects the body, and provides sensory information about the surrounding environment.-Easily exposed to infection, disease and injury since it consists of the skin (its location makes it vulnerable to damages) and accessory structures (hair, glands, and nails). Eccrine sweat glands are exocrine glands distributed over the entire body surface but are particularly abundant on the palms of hands, soles of feet, and on the forehead. The cuticle is situated between the skin of the finger and the nail plate fusing these structures together and providing a waterproof barrier. Dilated blood vessels increase perfusion and heat loss while constricted vessels greatly reduce cutaneous blood flow and conserve heat. The prescription drug isotretinoin significantly reduces the amount of sebum produced by the sebaceous glands, and is used to treat acne. Humans normally have two complex mammary glands, one in each breast, and each complex mammary gland consists of 10–20 simple glands. Check out our video library. Ticks. Integumentary System. These exocrine glands are enlarged and modified sweat glands and are the characteristic of mammals which gave the class its name. 4 layers of epithelium cells which is Stratum Basale, Stratum Spinosum, Stratum Granulosum, and Stratum Corneum. In addition to affecting cerumen type, this mutation also reduces sweat production. The protection of the body ag… The extreme use (up to 10 times doctor prescribed amounts) of anabolic steroids by bodybuilders to prevent weight loss tend to stimulate the sebaceous glands which can cause acne. In animals and plants, an integument is any natural outer covering, such as skin, shell, membrane, or husk. The difference in cerumen type has been tracked to a single base change (an single nucleotide polymorphism) in a gene known as “ATP-binding cassette C11 gene”. Integumentary System: Skin Appendages. The integumentary system includes hair, scales, feathers, hooves, and nails. Wet-type human earwax on a cotton swab. Specialties. It consists of three types: direct cutaneous, musculocutaneous and fasciocutaneous systems. The sweat glands are controlled by sympathetic cholinergic nerves which are controlled by a center in the hypothalamus. the many different functions of the integumentary system; the basic structure of skin; the structure and function of different types of hair; and; the structure and function of other accessory organs such as glands and hooves. This has sometimes led to the classification of people(s) on the basis of skin color. Pruritus in Animals. This layer of skin is responsible for keeping water in the body and keeping other harmful chemicals and pathogens out. Lubrication. Cells are formed through mitosis at the innermost layers. The integumentary system protects against many threats such as infection, desiccation, abrasion, chemical assault, and radiation damage. As a system it has contributions from all embryonic layers. This layer also contains specialized cells called Langerhans cells that signal to the immune system when there is an infection. The basic components of the mammary gland are the alveoli (hollow cavities, a few millimetres large) lined with milk-secreting epithelial cells and surrounded by myoepithelial cells. Link the age-related… The integumentary system is a pretty amazing structure. It is the junction between the free edge of the nail and the skin of the fingertip, also providing a waterproof barrier. The epidermis rests upon and protects the deeper and thicker dermis layer of the skin. Learn. Skin is composed of the epidermis and the dermis. Components of the skin include hair, nails, sweat glands, oil glands, blood vessels, lymph vessels, nerves, and muscles. Other components of the hypodermis include blood vessels, lymph vessels, nerves, hair follicles, and white blood cells known as mast cells. Epidermis and dermis. The dermis also contains specialized cells that help regulate temperature, fight infection, store water, and supply blood and nutrients to the skin. This portion of the nail does not have any melanocytes, or melanin producing cells. The integumentary system is perhaps the most important system providing a safety cover to the human body. Unlike the other bodily systems throughout the body, the integumentary system is not localized to one area or region of the body; instead, the integumentary system covers the entire body. When you look at yourself in a mirror, nearly everything you see is a part of the integumentary system. Has thin and thick skin but the thick skin is in the palm of your hands which it has a fifth layer that is called Stratum Lucidum The skin protects internal organs and other structures from injuries caused by friction, like scrapes or cuts. Nerve endings in the skin are repsonsible for our sense of touch. The skin, however, is the most important. The integumentary system consists of the largest organ in the body: the skin. All body systems work in an interconnected manner to maintain the internal conditions essential to the function of the body. These glands exist in humans throughout the skin except in the palms of the hands and soles of the feet. The sweat glands present in the integumentary system are called apocrine and eccrine. Fat serves as padding and insulation for the body. In the glands, sebum is produced within specialized cells and is released as these cells burst; sebaceous glands are thus classified as holocrine glands. The epidermis can be further subdivided into the following strata (beginning with the outermost layer): corneum, lucidum, granulosum, spinosum, basale. Development of the integumentary system. Diagnosis of Skin Diseases in Animals. Bailey, Regina. Skeletal System The fingertip has many nerve endings in it allowing us to receive volumes of information about objects we touch. The integumentary system includes hair, scales, feathers, hooves, and nails. Emotional stress increases the production of sweat from the apocrine glands, or more precisely: the sweat already present in the tubule is squeezed out. Let’s take a look at it. The integumentary system protects against many threats such as infection, desiccation, abrasion, chemical assault, and radiation damage. Antibacterial and antifungal roles. The integumentary system 1. STUDY. Nails protect the tips of fingers and toes from mechanical injury. This portion of the nail is actually beneath the skin behind the fingernail and extends several millimeters into the finger. The pink appearance of the nail comes from the blood vessels underneath the nail. The Integumentary System by angel blake 1. The integumentary system is a system comprised of organs that are the outermost protective covering of the animal body, the skin, and its various derivatives. The heat promotes activation of sweat glands. The fingernail generally serve two purposes. The underneath surface of the nail plate has grooves along the length of the nail that help anchor it to the nail bed. So amazing, in fact, that it deserves its own post. Hair. Terminal hair, the fully developed hair, which is generally longer, coarser, thicker, and darker than vellus hair, and often is found in regions such as the axillary, male beard, and pubic. They move up the strata changing shape and composition as they differentiate, inducing expression of new types of keratin genes. Skin. It’s one of the many things about our anatomy we take for granted. It also functions to retain body fluids, protect against disease, eliminate waste products, and regulate body temperature. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. The integumentary system, better known to laypeople as “the skin,” is the largest of the body's organ systems and one of the most important. The Integumentary system refers to the body system consisting of the skin and its various attachments. Mammary glands are the organs that, in the female mammal, produce milk for the sustenance of the young. The integumentary system serves all other systems by providing a physical barrier to environmental hazards. 1. Earwax is partly sebum, as is mucopurulent discharge, the dry substance accumulating in the corners of the eye after sleeping. Smooth, healthy, and vibrant skin, hair, and nails are appreciated, sought after, and rewarded in our society. The outermost layer of the skin, composed of epithelial tissue, is known as the epidermis. In humans, the primary organ of the integumentary system is the skin. It has a variety of additional functions; it may serve to waterproof, and protect the deeper tissues, excrete wastes, and regulate body temperature, and is the attachment site for sensory receptors to detect pain, sensation, pressure, and temperature. Blood capillaries are found beneath the dermis, and are linked to an arteriole and a venule. The dermis lies below the epidermis and contains a number of structures including blood vessels, nerves, hair follicles, smooth muscle, glands and lymphatic tissue. Home / Uncategorized / Integumentary System Organs This epidermis … Erector pili muscles are significant in animals. Nail Plate The nail plate is the actual fingernail, made of translucent keratin. The integumentary system consists of the skin, hair fingernails and toenails and other structures including glands. The sebaceous glands are glands found in the skin of mammals. Sebum and dead skin cells form plugs in hair follicles. It also contains DNA repair enzymes which reverse UV damage, and people who lack the genes for these enzymes suffer high rates of skin cancer. The integumentary system consists of: skin → The skin protects the body from bacteria and microbes, controls the body temperature and allows our senses of touch, cold, and heat. SURVEY . Cleaning. Bailey, Regina. A major function of the subcutaneous tissue is to connect the skin to underlying tissues such as muscles. The integumentary system serves all other systems by providing a physical barrier to environmental hazards. The main type of cells which make up the epidermis are keratinocytes, with melanocytes and Langerhans cells also present. The skin not only keeps most harmful substances out, but also prevents the loss of fluids. Maintain Healthy Digestion (especially avoid constipation) Most of the time that I work with … Integumentary System: Dermis, Hypodermis. The integumentary system consists of the skin, hair, nails, the subcutaneous tissue below the skin, and assorted glands. The epidermis is an avascular region of the body, meaning that it does not contain an… Figure 1. Hair and nails, are also part of integumentary system as the extension of the skin. By using ThoughtCo, you accept our. T- 1-855-694-8886Email- info@iTutor.comBy iTutor.com 2. It contains no blood vessels, and is nourished by diffusion from the dermis. These are all exocrine glands, secreting materials outside the … The human integumentary system is an external body covering, but also much more. While other systems of the body are also affected by a severe burn, this paper will focus primarily on the muscular, integumentary, and nervous systems. Below these layers lies the hypodermis or subcutaneous adipose layer, which is not usually classified as a layer of skin. The integumentary system consists of the skin and its appendages: eccrine, apocrine, apoeccrine, and sebaceous glands; hair; and nails. Likewise, the integumentary system is important for vitamin D production and plays a small role in excreting waste. In humans, there are two kinds of sweat glands which differ greatly in both the composition of the sweat and its purpose. Root The root of the fingernail is also known as the germinal matrix. Course format. Fingernails give the fingers greater ability to pick up small objects. Herbalists rely on the physiology of the skin to better understand an individual. Papillary ridges make up the lines of the hands giving us fingerprints. 2. Identify the 3 layers of the skin. The integumentary system is the body system which surrounds you, both literally and metaphorically speaking. ", ThoughtCo uses cookies to provide you with a great user experience. They eventually reach the corneum and become sloughed off (desquamation). Among these changes are reductions in cell division, metabolic activity, blood circulation, hormonal levels, and muscle strength (). Melanin absorbs some of the potentially dangerous radiation in sunlight. Protection/ covering Temperature regulation: through sweating, which cools down the body, or vasodilation, vessels enlarge to release heat, or vasoconstriction, vessels tighten to keep body heat. The integumentary system helps regulate body temperature through its tight association with the sympathetic nervous system, the division of the nervous system involved in our fight-or-flight responses. Dermatitis in Animals. The hypothalamus senses core temperature directly, and also has input from temperature receptors in the skin and modifies the sweat output, along with other thermoregulatory processes. Integument comes from the Latin word integumentum, meaning "cover" or "enclosure." Earwax, also known by the medical term cerumen, is a yellowish, waxy substance secreted in the ear canal of humans and many other mammals. The integumentary system forms a protective barrier between the external environment and the inner tissues. Dermis. The most important function of the integumentary system is protection. Eccrine sweat glands are coiled tubular glands derived leading directly to the most superficial layer of the epidermis (out layer of skin) but extending into the inner layer of the skin (dermis layer). hair → Hair can be curly, strait, or wavy, it can also be rough, smooth or silky. Eccrine glands are coiled glands in the dermis that release sweat that is mostly water. Production, composition, and different types, https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Human_Physiology, Identify the structure and function of the integumentary system, Protection: Skin gives an anatomical barrier between the internal and external environment in bodily defense; Langerhans cells in the skin are part of the immune system, Sensation: Skin contains a variety of nerve endings that react to heat, cold, touch, pressure, vibration, and tissue injury. We grow old by deserting our ideals. It serves as a protective plate and enhances sensation of the fingertip. It contains the bulk of the structures (such as sweat glands). Mast cells protect the body against pathogens, heal wounds, and aid in blood vessel formation. Sebum is odorless, but its bacterial breakdown can produce odors. The activity of the sebaceous glands increases during puberty because of heightened levels of androgens. Integumentary System Functions Protection. 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