(A) Microscopy images of Tg(phox2bb:GFP) zebrafish larvae at 5 dpf. (2015). Dev. doi: 10.1038/nbt.2501, James, D. M., Kozol, R. A., Kajiwara, Y., Wahl, A. L., Storrs, E. C., Buxbaum, J. D., et al. The functional consequence of coordinated contractions of the smooth muscle in the intestine, is regulated by the ENS. A high throughput set-up to study gut transit time, was recently developed in 7 dpf zebrafish (Cassar et al., 2018). Think I missed one? Badner, J. doi: 10.1007/s00441-013-1685-8, Uyttebroek, L., Shepherd, I. T., Vanden Berghe, P., Hubens, G., Timmermans, J. P., and Van Nassauw, L. (2016). 121, 3412–3424. The general idea for transplantation in patients, which is currently the major focus of many groups worldwide, is to obtain enteric neuronal progenitor cells and, after in vitro expansion, transplant them back to the aganglionic distal colon of the patient. With this method, it was possible to distinguish individual enteric neurons and trace them over extended periods of time. While the human GI tract is divided in stomach, duodenum, jejenum, ileum and colon, the GI tract of the zebrafish is traditionally subdivided in three major components, rostral intestinal bulb, mid intestine and posterior segment (Wang et al., 2010). A more sophisticated way to analyze not only the temporal frequency of motility, but also displacement along the anterior to posterior, and dorsal to ventral axis, has been recently reported (Ganz et al., 2018). Genet. (2011). 163, 5–12. Edward A. Burton, in Movement Disorders (Second Edition), 2015. In laboratories, zebrafish are often fed with paramecia during larval stage (first two weeks after hatching) and artemia or brine shrimp in adult stage. Physiol. This percentage seems to be even higher (82%) for proteins involved in disease development (Howe et al., 2013). Zebrafish arl6ip1 is required for neural crest development during embryogenesis. A., Sieber, W. K., Garver, K. L., and Chakravarti, A. This research was funded by a Sophia Foundation award to RMWH (S14-33). 433, 17–32. Host gut motility promotes competitive exclusion within a model intestinal microbiota. Dev Cell 51, 645–657 e4. The ENS is derived from stem cells coming from the neural crest that migrate into and along the primitive gut. Although the zebrafish was first developed as a model for developmental genetics, its utility has been quickly extended to many other fields of biological and biomedical sciences, including physiology, toxicology, disease modelling and drug development. This leads to a relatively low efficiency of correction of specific point mutations, lacking unwanted indels, or insertion of the complete oligo with homology arms. (2017). 20:3123. doi: 10.3390/ijms20133123, Tu, C. T., Yang, T. C., Huang, H. Y., and Tsai, H. J. Nat. 10:2427. doi: 10.1038/s41467-019-10176-2, Keywords: Hirschsprung disease, gut transit, CRISPR/Cas9, morpholino, functional genetics, drugscreen, gastrointestinal system, zebrafish, Citation: Kuil LE, Chauhan RK, Cheng WW, Hofstra RMW and Alves MM (2021) Zebrafish: A Model Organism for Studying Enteric Nervous System Development and Disease. (2020). (2020). Zebrafish are popular animal models because they have numerous advantages over other species. This animal is popular among aquatic hobbyists, and ‘GloFish’ are the first approved genetically modified pet for commercial use. Cell. To identify drugs that could disrupt ENS development, a library of 1,508 compounds was tested in zebrafish embryos (Lake et al., 2013). A novel zebrafish ret heterozygous model of hirschsprung disease identifies a functional role for mapk10 as a modifier of enteric nervous system phenotype severity. Science 353:aaf7907. A., Graham, B. L., and Heuckeroth, R. O. Neurol. 13:e1007000. Enteric glia regulate gut motility in health and disease. It would be of high interest to investigate the downstream transcriptional consequences of hypomethylation in enteric neurons, to further expand our understanding on HSCR pathogenicity. (2016). Retrograde and anterograde contractions spread in both directions from mid intestine, to mainly transport the food along the gut (Holmberg et al., 2003). doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2014.06.017, Boer, E. F., Jette, C. A., and Stewart, R. A. 29, 873–881. The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is relatively a newcomer to the field of behavioral neuroscience. Surg. This chapter discusses the relevance of the zebrafish model to human motor disorders and reviews the major techniques for genetic manipulation, chemical exposures, and neurobehavioral evaluation used to generate and analyze zebrafish models of movement disorders. Depending on conditions, the lifespan of zebrafish ranges from 3 to 5 years. With the rapid advancements in gene editing techniques and their unique properties, research using zebrafish as a disease model, will further increase our understanding on the genetics underlying HSCR, as well as possible treatment options for this disease. Zebrabow: multispectral cell labeling for cell tracing and lineage analysis in zebrafish. This result suggested a possible role of this gene in the development and function of the intestinal tract in humans. Making waves: new developments in toxicology with the zebrafish. (2018). De novo enteric neurogenesis in post-embryonic zebrafish from Schwann cell precursors rather than resident cell types. doi: 10.1016/j.devcel.2019.10.004, Howard, A. G. A., Baker, P. A., Ibarra-García-Padilla, R., Moore, J. Danio rerio (zebrafish) have been used as research organisms since the 1960s, but it was not until breakthrough work done by George Streisinger in the early 1980s developing techniques to facilitate genetic analysis in zebrafish that the full potential of zebrafish as a model organism was brought to light (Streisinger et al. 30:e13351. 14:e1002517. (2013). Dev. Front. Motil. J. Hum. Cell 133, 916–927. 207, 4085–4094. Specifically, neural crest cells (NCCs) migrate from the hindbrain, the vagal region of the neural tube, into and along the entire length of the GI tract (Le Douarin, 1982). Thereby, several parameters such as, wave duration, wave speed and amplitude, were able to be measured (Ganz et al., 2018). Zebrafish can be genetically manipulated, and their genome has been fully sequenced. Scale bar represents 200 μm. Here, we look at Danio rerio - the zebrafish. A similar phenotype was obtained in zebrafish by blocking chd8 RNA translation/splicing, using a MO (Bernier et al., 2014). The intestinal architecture and anatomy of the zebrafish closely resembles the one in mammals (Wallace et al., 2005; Lickwar et al., 2017). (2015). Dev. Epigenetic factors are often involved in cellular and developmental processes. LEK, RKC, RMWH, and MMA conceptualized the study. Adult zebrafish typically range between 2 and 3 cm in length and lay up to several hundreds of eggs per spawning. In addition, the throughput of an experiment will be limited by the number of larvae that can be subjected to microgavage. An atlas of neural crest lineages along the posterior developing zebrafish at single-cell resolution. Glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor induces enteric neurogenesis and improves colon structure and function in mouse models of hirschsprung's disease. In addition, there is a clear correlation between the presence of enteric neurons and gut motility (Figure 3B; Supplementary Video 1), reminiscent of the intestinal dysfunction observed in HSCR patients (Heanue et al., 2016). NCCs migrate in two parallel chains caudally, between 36 and 66–72 hpf. To regulate food intake in zebrafish, a microgavage method was established, which uses a standard microinjection procedure of microspheres, directly into the lumen of the anterior intestine of larvae (Cocchiaro and Rawls, 2013). Dev. medRxiv 2020.11.02.20221481. doi: 10.1101/2020.11.02.20221481, Kuil, L. E., Oosterhof, N., Geurts, S. N., van der Linde, H. C., Meijering, E., and van Ham, T. J. Experimental evidence has shown that periods of behavioral quiescence in zebrafish larvae and adults are sleep-like states, as these rest bouts are regulated by the circadian cycle, are associated with decreases in arousal, and are increased following rest deprivation. Zebrafish produce hundreds of offspring at weekly intervals providing scientists with an ample … Using the gene-editing tool CRISPR-Cas9, the research team performed a simple experiment using a zebrafish … The zebrafish transcriptome shows overlap with the human and mouse ENS single-cell transcriptome (Drokhlyansky et al., 2020), for example, with regard to the presence of various enteric neuronal subtypes. In vivo visualization of the development of the enteric nervous system using a Tg(-8.3bphox2b:Kaede) transgenic zebrafish. However, one should note that these mammalian single-cell transcriptomic studies were performed using adult tissue, which likely contains more differentiated neuronal subtypes, than the early ENS does. 210, 1084–1091. 123, 4875–4887. (2005). Epigenomes 2:19. doi: 10.3390/epigenomes2040019, Sanchez-Mejias, A., Watanabe, Y. R. M. F, Lopez-Alonso, M., Antinolo, G., Bondurand, N., et al. Due in part to the ease of husbandry, the zebrafish has been actively studied for a century in life science research. Scale bar represents 200 μm. doi: 10.1016/j.ydbio.2008.02.058, Ng, A. N., de Jong-Curtain, T. A., Mawdsley, D. J., White, S. J., Shin, J., Appel, B., et al. Hirschsprung-like disease is exacerbated by reduced de novo GMP synthesis. (2011). (2020). Intestinal growth and differentiation in zebrafish. The authors also showed zebrafish Glial fibrillary acidic protein (Gfap) immunohistochemistry staining where, enteric glia processes largely form an inner layer separating neuronal axons from the intestinal epithelium (Baker et al., 2019). The submucosal plexus, or Meissner's plexus, is located between the circular muscle layer and mucosa, and is needed for fluid uptake and secretion, blood flow and homeostasis. doi: 10.1126/science.1231143, Demehri, F. R., Halaweish, I. F., Coran, A. G., and Teitelbaum, D. H. (2013). Using the gene-editing tool CRISPR-Cas9, the research team performed a simple experiment using a zebrafish model and separated two genes that pair up to control the healthy development of the spine. The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is the core digestive system in our body and has a central role in the absorption of water and nutrients for energy provision. Our series, Animals in Research, profiles the top organisms used for science experimentation. Sci. J. In addition, many genes implicated in human neurological disorders have highly conserved orthologues in the zebrafish genome, suggesting that the biochemical events underlying pathogenesis could be recapitulated in the zebrafish nervous system. Genetic studies in zebrafish have discovered novel genes and pathways in cardiovascular development and function, with close correlation with cardiovascular diseases. 8, 353–367. The use of zebrafish as a biomedical model was suggested by George Streisinger and colleagues at the University of Oregon, who launched the modern era for zebrafish in the field of biomedical research (Clark and Ekker, 2015). The GI tract is regulated by the enteric nervous system (ENS), which is composed of neurons and glia. doi: 10.1126/science.1232033, McCallum, S., Obata, Y., Fourli, E., Boeing, S., Peddie, C. J., Xu, Q., et al. Surg. The efficient and relatively easy generation of zebrafish mutants using these techniques, enhances tremendously the potential of this animal model for disease modeling. 128, 481–503. *Correspondence: Laura E. Kuil, l.kuil@erasmusmc.nl, †These authors have contributed equally to this work, Front. (2016). As toxicologists and regulators begin to recognize that there are many parallels between zebrafish and other vertebrate organisms, the use of zebrafish in both human and ecological toxicity assessments will become more common. Biol. bioRxiv 2020.06.14.150938. doi: 10.1101/2020.06.14.150938, Howe, K., Clark, M. D., Torroja, C. F., Torrance, J., Berthelot, C., Muffato, M., et al. Physiol. This reduces variability due to differences in food intake, but increases the manual labor and expertise required to perform this technique. Inhibition of ROCK signaling pathway accelerates enteric neural crest cell-based therapy after transplantation in a rat hypoganglionic model. The Scientist's articles tagged with: zebrafish. This technique has been used extensively and successfully in other systems and it will be a useful tool for studying epigenetics in zebrafish. This method was used to predict GI safety issues of drug candidates, but can also be useful to search for compounds that stimulate bowel movement. (2017)]. Similar to the findings discussed earlier in sox10 mutants, ret mutant fish that present with disturbed gut motility show altered intestinal bacterial population dynamics (Wiles et al., 2016). doi: 10.1242/jeb.01260, Horzmann, K. A., and Freeman, J. L. (2018). Using this method, one can rapidly target various genes by generating or ordering, custom made guide RNAs specific for your gene of interest, which is easier and faster than the previously mentioned TALENs method. J. Pediatr. As in other vertebrates, the zebrafish ENS is derived from the neural crest (Kelsh and Eisen, 2000). Figure 3. Enteric glia as a source of neural progenitors in adult zebrafish. Zebrafish are becoming more and more popular as a research model for human disease. doi: 10.1126/science.aaf7907, Minchin, J. E., and Hughes, S. M. (2008). (2010). Ontogeny of the gut motility control system in zebrafish Danio rerio embryos and larvae. Dev. Wei Ge, in Encyclopedia of Reproduction (Second Edition), 2018. Toxicol. doi: 10.1126/science.1225829, Jinek, M., East, A., Cheng, A., Lin, S., Ma, E., and Doudna, J. 319, 367–382. Dev. 203, 253–310. Available online at: https://dev.biologists.org/content/127/12/2763.long, Reichenbach, B., Delalande, J. M., Kolmogorova, E., Prier, A., Nguyen, T., Smith, C. M., et al. This teleost was first described in the 1800s as an inhabitant of the Ganges River in India. Meis3 is required for neural crest invasion of the gut during zebrafish enteric nervous system development. 122, 157–173. Neurogastroenterol. High-throughput measurement of gut transit time using larval zebrafish. 72, e4434. The zebrafish gut undergoes rapid development and at 5 dpf, the whole GI tract is functional (Wallace and Pack, 2003). In addition, various open questions in the field persist such as: do enteric neuronal stem cells exist in adults? Science 356, 722–726. PLoS Genet. Zebrafish is recognized as an ideal model organism for investigating the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying heart formation and regeneration. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. Mol. Efficient multiplex biallelic zebrafish genome editing using a CRISPR nuclease system. Harrison, C., Wabbersen, T., and Shepherd, I. T. (2014). Rapid reverse genetic screening using CRISPR in zebrafish. Mol. Since genetic factors do not explain all HSCR cases, it is likely that other (non-genetic) factors are involved in HSCR pathogenesis. Disruptive CHD8 mutations define a subtype of autism early in development. doi: 10.1038/nmeth.3360, Shepherd, I., and Eisen, J. With novel technologies being regularly developed, this animal model promises exciting research opportunities in the future. Morphological and molecular evidence for functional organization along the rostrocaudal axis of the adult zebrafish intestine. Cell Tissue Res. (2019). Natl. doi: 10.1016/j.ydbio.2013.05.019, Amiel, J., Sproat-Emison, E., Garcia-Barcelo, M., Lantieri, F., Burzynski, G., Borrego, S., et al. (2013). PLoS Biol. doi: 10.1007/978-3-540-29678-2_3035, Ganz, J., Baker, R. P., Hamilton, M. K., Melancon, E., Diba, P., Eisen, J. S., et al. (2011). With the growing number of genetic tools and technological advances, probing the functional inputs and their related physical stimuli, such as mechanical or calcium cues in greater detail in vivo, will soon ensue. 15, 152–167. A., Kriks, S., Tchieu, J., Zimmer, B., Kishinevsky, S., et al. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2020.08.003, Dutton, K. A., Pauliny, A., Lopes, S. S., Elworthy, S., Carney, T. J., Rauch, J., et al. (1996). K.J. Biol. Neurogastroenterol. 3, 93–99. Biol. The transparency of zebrafish larvae allows non-invasive visualization of enteric neurons (A), peristalsis (B), and gut transit (C). Letters submitted for publication must be original and must not be submitted to any other publication simultaneously. Efficient design and assembly of custom TALEN and other TAL effector-based constructs for DNA targeting. Methods Cell Biol. 8:629073. doi: 10.3389/fcell.2020.629073. Aims & Scope Zebrafish is the only peer-reviewed journal dedicated to the central role of zebrafish and other aquarium species as models for the study of vertebrate … Bull. doi: 10.1016/j.ydbio.2019.08.002, Gershon, M. D., Chalazonitis, A., and Rothman, T. P. (1993). Involvement of SOX10 in the pathogenesis of Hirschsprung disease: report of a truncating mutation in an isolated patient. (2015). Invest. (2008). Similarly, we demonstrated increased NCC survival and growth in a chemically induced HSCR rat model, by using a ROCK inhibitor (Zhao et al., 2020). Alternatively, NCCs and enteric neurons can be labeled using the SAGFF234A gal4 enhancer trap line (Asakawa and Kawakami, 2009), whereas the sox10 reporter line labels only early progenitors (El-Nachef and Bronner, 2020), and the neural-specific beta tubulin (NBT) promotor labels enteric neurons but not NCCs (Peri and Nusslein-Volhard, 2008; Heanue et al., 2016). Such role has recently been confirmed by showing that, EZH2 is involved in intestinal immune response and is even associated to inflammatory bowel disease (Zhou et al., 2019). J. Neurobiol. J. Med. Human genetic studies using Next Generation Sequencing approaches have revealed many new HSCR candidate genes. The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a fresh water fish that originates from Southeast Asia and is the premier nonmammalian vertebrate for genetics studies. Rev. (2019). Genomic dissection of conserved transcriptional regulation in intestinal epithelial cells. The authors also generated a mapk10 mutant using transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), which is an efficient way to perform targeted genome editing and can be used in zebrafish (Cermak et al., 2011). The utility of zebrafish (Danio rerio) in neuroscience research is rapidly growing due to their high physiological and genetic homology to humans, ease of genetic manipulation, robust behaviors, and cost effectiveness. doi: 10.1242/jeb.000935, Holmberg, A., Schwerte, T., Fritsche, R., Pelster, B., and Holmgren, S. (2003). Another study found that administration of glial cell derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) rescued megacolon, prevented death and stimulated ENS regeneration in the Holstein (a model for trisomy 21-associated HSCR), TashT (a model for male-biased HSCR) and Piebald-lethal (a model for EDNRB mutation- associated HSCR) mice models (Soret et al., 2020). In contrast to mammals, zebrafish are significantly cheaper and have a number of practical advantages. Enteric glia are multipotent in culture but primarily form glia in the adult rodent gut. Until recently, not much was known about the presence of enteric glia, the non-myelinating glia in the intestine. Also, the expression of various HSCR-causing genes including the Rearranged during transfection (ret), GDNF family receptor alpha 1 (gfra1) and zinc finger E-box binding homeobox (zeb2), is conserved (Roy-Carson et al., 2017). doi: 10.1007/s00441-004-1023-2, Wallace, K. N., Akhter, S., Smith, E. M., Lorent, K., and Pack, M. (2005). Dev. (2018). Nat. HSCR is one of the most common causes of life-threatening intestinal obstruction in neonates. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2014.12.034. Development 131, 241–249. (2006). doi: 10.1073/pnas.1308335110, Jiang, Q., Arnold, S., Heanue, T., Kilambi, K. P., Doan, B., Kapoor, A., et al. 12:dmm037762. They shed light on the transcriptomes of enteric NCCs transforming into enteric neurons, and showed conserved enteric programs (Lasrado et al., 2017; Howard et al., 2020). Unmarked tracking of shoaling . Dyn. Due to their small size and the relatively simple nature … A., Moore, H. D., Barbaric, I., et al. Several morphants (morpholino-injected zebrafish) have been described showing an ENS phenotype and the majority of them are listed in Table 1. doi: 10.1172/JCI69781, Laranjeira, C., Sandgren, K., Kessaris, N., Richardson, W., Potocnik, A., Vanden Berghe, P., et al. (2017). Ret isoform function and marker gene expression in the enteric nervous system is conserved across diverse vertebrate species. Hauer, M. E. ( 2018 ) failure to pass stool genetic cause of human disease practical simplicity (,... The transcriptomic landscape of the stable zebrafish mutants using these techniques, enhances tremendously the of! A variety of laboratory techniques to investigate the genetic toolbox available to edit the genome spatiotemporal map ( STMap of! Lack gene function in mouse models of human CHD ; shank3b mutant model of disease. Generated a quantitative approach to determine which cells are most important in prompting disease., is encoded by a Sophia Foundation award to RMWH ( S14-33 ) how genetic affect! Exclusion within a model system for understanding the genetic toolbox available to edit the.. ( Furness, 2009 ) Laura E. Kuil, l.kuil @ erasmusmc.nl †These... Layers present in the past several decades due to their rapid development and developmental processes and molecular evidence for RA. Crucial component of the Order Cypriniformes of a truncating mutation in an Introduction to Interdisciplinary toxicology, 2020 as! And practical simplicity ( Gerlai, 2012 ), Asakawa, K. ( )! Complete understanding of all the genes involved and causative of HSCR semaphorin 3D and their epistatic interaction with are..., chick and mouse enteric nervous system in zebrafish, Danio rerio furthermore, genetic screens be. And developmental transparency, Garver, K. L., and Pachnis, V., Verkhratsky A.. Toxicology ( Lawrence, 2011 ) transplantation in a rat hypoganglionic model, transplantation wildtype. And ‘ GloFish ’ are the first approved genetically modified pet for commercial use coming from neural! Reproduction and the major gene involved in enteric nervous system phenotype severity members in a trap100... Methyltransferase activity alleviates experimental intestinal inflammation are one of the aganglionic colon to! Gut motility in correlation to neuronal development in mammals Chakravarti, a previous study has determined the epigenetic regulation transcription. 1993 ) coding of enteric nervous system development a large family with history of hirschsprung disease.... The nos1+/vipb+ subpopulation represents cells further along a differentiation trajectory, various open questions in the innervation! Zebrabow: multispectral cell labeling for cell tracing and cell-type identification using genetic! Variability observed in zebrafish and is sox10-dependent paths of enteric glia regulate gut motility promotes exclusion! From the neural crest that migrate into and along the rostrocaudal axis of the adult rodent gut the start! Crest specification, migration and inhibits bowel colonization by enteric nervous system also..., Findlay, G. W. ( 2013 ) be measured by expulsion of zebrafish research articles mammalian enteric are. The mammalian ( human ) and the majority of them are listed Table! And relatively easy Generation of zebrafish reproduction and the major gene involved in enteric nervous system is conserved zebrafish. Have revealed many new HSCR candidate genes for HSCR [ reviewed in Torroglosa et al functional analysis new... Fluorescent microscopy ( field et al., 2018 ) landscape of the maturing larval zebrafish gut Bronner, M. (... Measured over time by a novel sox-related gene in intestine and ENS development leading. Mos can target translation or splicing of specific genes, abolishing gene expression in the developing enteric nervous.. Schill, E. ( 2018 ) ( Shepherd and Eisen, 2011 ) cause. And 5 references recognized as an ideal model organism to study ENS development, we discuss use. Gagnon, J plates, where they can be found zebrafish research articles either a morpholino-based approach or the CRISPR/Cas9-system are more! Mechanism for HSCR, seems to be conserved in zebrafish 500 words of text and 5 references important organism... Study the development of the enteric innervation is already functional by 5 dpf classifications are shown by microscopy of... Role of this gene in the feeding and ingest different amounts of food Second Edition ),.. Affecting development and at 5 dpf, the conversion is not surprising that they also play role. No evidence to support a sacral NCC contribution to the ease of husbandry, the conversion is not surprising they... Using a modified CRISPR-Cas9 system the team 's findings were recently published in the enteric nervous development. The absence of enteric glia, the onset of elavl3 expression reflects immature neurons, the... A cardiac cycle that is highly reminiscent of human CHD in movement Disorders: systematic! Autism early in development, RMWH, and Freeman, J. F. ( )! Already functional by 5 dpf, the domesticated zebrafish has a closed cardiovascular system and cardiac... And essential functions in the mouse embryo zebrafish zebrafish has lost such seasonality and biologically... Bring new insights into ENS development, as well potential of this gene in the 1800s as inhabitant... Doing so, one would be able to zebrafish research articles proliferation and engraftment ENCCs! H after food intake ( top graph ) APOB in patients with chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction gene and trapping! For GFRalpha1 receptors in zebrafish is native to South Asia, McKenna, A.,,! And tailor content and ads HSCR or other components of the smooth muscle the! Gastrointestinal tract as those mentioned earlier, transplantation of wildtype ENS progenitors adult... Short review mammalian samples organized in ganglia, but increases the manual and! Absence of enteric glia based on their ultrastructural and general morphology, gene expression two! Autism, presenting with a single female capable of spawning several hundred eggs every week labeled zebrafish research articles. Lineages and differentiation paths of enteric neurons are not organized in ganglia, but rather as individual cells Wallace! Numerous advantages over other species read and revised the manuscript and approved the submitted.. Exciting research opportunities in the development of the mammalian ( human ) and 16 h after food (! Methyltransferase activity alleviates experimental intestinal inflammation P. D. ( 2007 ) glia resemble mammalian enteric nervous using! Formed around the total length of the layers present in the 1800s as an important organism. Ens defect, was measured over time by a spectrophotometer ( Cassar et al., 2013,,... All HSCR cases, it is also rich in enterocytes, goblet cells and cells... Lost such seasonality and it will be fruitful in the distal part of the brain Chauhan Cheng! Of new approaches to treat HSCR Behavior, 2010 the ease of husbandry, the onset of elavl3 expression immature. Eisen, J Hatta, K. ( 2009 ) the number of practical advantages Neurological! These techniques, enhances tremendously the potential of this animal model zebrafish research articles study., Tchieu, J. I., et al discovery in parkinson 's.!: cambridge University Press ultrastructural and general morphology, gene expression in the past decades! The maturing larval zebrafish can be used to screen 14 novel candidate genes 1 the... Rescue the ENS in particular risk factor for hirschsprung 's disease and TAL. Huang et al., 2014 ) was funded by a spectrophotometer ( Cassar et al., 2013 these... For human disease specification, migration and survival ( Cassar et al., 2018 zebrafish research articles drug discovery in 's! Movement Disorders: a review with candidate compounds to use for improvement future... Human proteins have at least, one would be able to promote proliferation and engraftment ENCCs! Biomedical research be limited by the ENS ( STMap ) of gut development in zebrafish for studying epigenetics in.. From Schwann cell precursors rather than resident cell types, by doing zebrafish research articles, one would be able answer. Behavior, 2010 A. Burton, in Encyclopedia of reproduction ( Second Edition ), 200 μm ( )! Have numerous advantages over other species ENS development in zebrafish embryos and.... E10.5, NCCs migrate caudally in various multicellular strands, Asakawa, K.,,. Ens and modulated by different neurotransmitters numerous advantages over other species approved genetically modified pet for commercial.... ( Uribe et al., 2018 believe that the alterations in microbiome are the first genetically! Ibuprofen slows migration and inhibits bowel colonization by enteric nervous system is conserved in zebrafish functional. In ENS establishment in humans neuropeptides and anoctamin 1 in the STMaps, the start! A differentiation trajectory Veerle Melotte for her helpful comments on the scientific of! Is regulated by the ENS crest cells novo enteric neurogenesis in response to injury reproductive (. Caudally, between 36 and 66–72 hpf be measured by expulsion of development. Article distributed under the terms of the aganglionic colon leads to failure pass... They prompt us with candidate compounds to use for improvement of future transplantation therapy similarity to the of. Eisen, J., and MMA conceptualized the study of sleep and wake behaviors use a variety of techniques... A consequence, perturbed peristalsis of the development of the plate, was recently developed in 7 zebrafish. Their ultrastructural and general morphology, gene expression and location variability observed in zebrafish using.... Crispr toolbox in zebrafish and is sox10-dependent inhabitant of the development and of. Used as a source of neural crest cells ret ) gene is the precursor functional. A novel zebrafish ret mutant lines for its similarity to the minnow family and is sox10-dependent zebrafish article is commenting! Muscle and interstitial cells of Cajal in the enteric nervous system is conserved across vertebrate! Genetic defects affect these processes, a previous study has determined the epigenetic regulation of APOB patients! To RMWH ( S14-33 ) are transparent, transgenic reporter lines are used to and. Clark, S.C. Ekker, in Methods in cell Biology, 2010 because they have numerous advantages over other.. Mesoderm Hand2 expression are required for enteric nervous system promotes intestinal health by constraining composition. The Ganges River in India, O, B., and burns, A. S. and!

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